“5Pointz” Jury Returns Advisory Verdict in Favor of Graffiti Artists.
A six-member jury has returned an advisory verdict finding that a property developer violated more than twenty graffiti artists’ “right of integrity” under the Visual Artists Rights Act (“VARA”) when it whitewashed a building bearing nearly fifty of those artists’ works. As covered previously on this blog, the artist plaintiffs filed suit under VARA in 2013, seeking to enjoin developer Wolkoff’s demolition of that Long Island City building, nicknamed “5Pointz,” which Wolkoff had previously invited the artists to use as their canvas, and which had eventually gained renown as a “graffiti Mecca.” In November 2013, Judge Frederic Block of the federal court in the Eastern District of New York denied the injunction, but allowed the case to go forward on the artists’ claim for damages.1 Before Judge Block had even issued a written decision, Wolkoff whitewashed the building. The actual demolition of 5Pointz began in August 2014, making way for two luxury high rise towers that are slated for completion by the end of this year.
In March 2017, Judge Block partially granted defendants’ motion for summary judgment, but allowed plaintiffs’ VARA claims to proceed to trial.2 On November 8, 2017, after three weeks of trial testimony, the jury returned a verdict in favor of plaintiffs, finding, among other things, that the “aerosol art” works at issue had indeed achieved “recognized stature” under VARA. The verdict marks the first time that graffiti has been recognized as subject to VARA protection under federal law.
By stipulation of the parties, however, the jury’s verdict is advisory, not final. In addition to the jury’s recommendation, Judge Block will consider post-trial briefs from the parties, due December 11, 2017, before issuing a written decision on liability and damages. If he finds the defendants liable, it will be interesting to see what damages he arrives at. Under the Copyright Act, the court has wide discretion in setting damages, which, at the plaintiffs’ election, may be either actual damages or a statutory sum ranging from $750 to $30,000 per work “as the court considers just” – and up to $150,000 per work if Judge Block finds that the infringement of the artists’ rights was “willful.”3 The court, in its discretion, may also allow recovery of costs and may award attorney’s fees.4
1. Cohen v. G&M Realty, 988 F. Supp 2d 212 (E.D.N.Y. 2013).
2. Cohen v. G&M Realty L.P., No. 13-CV-5612 (FB), 2017 WL 1208416 (E.D.N.Y. Mar. 31, 2017). While allowing the VARA claims to go forward, Judge Block dismissed the plaintiffs’ claims for conversion, property damage, and intentional infliction of emotional distress, as well as the defendants’ counterclaim for abuse of process.
3. 17 U.S.C. § 504.
4. Id. § 505